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[双语] 如何写大学书面作业

2010-01-19 14:00:44  来源:国际在线专稿  编辑:杨大为   

(音频内容由《英语沙龙·时尚版》独家提供,未经允许,请勿转载)

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  That very fi rst college writing assignment (and often subsequent papers as well!) can stump a student more than any other new aspect of undergraduate schoolwork. College professors are typically looking for a different style of writing than what you were used to in high school. This being said, there are specifi c things you can do to help prepare for and write college papers, and alleviate that often-present frustration called writer’s block. The following is a list of dos and don’ts that I’ve discovered and can help most college students in the writing process:

  大学中的第一个写作任务(当然也包括随后的书面作业)比其他任何本科阶段的课程作业更能使学生感到困难。大学教授们所要求的写作风格和你在中学时代所熟悉的那一套完全不同。因此,你需要做一些具体的事情,以便有所准备,完成写作任务,并且减轻那种会经常出现的被称为是“卡壳”的挫败感。以下便是我发现的写作中该做的和不该做的事项,这个清单可以对多数大学生在写作过程中有所帮助。

  Do read the material you are supposed to be writing on/about. If you have not kept up with the reading assignments for a class, how can you expect to sit down and write a paper on their subject matter? Unless you are in a completely opinionbased philosophy class of some sort, you will not impress your professors with papers that show your lack of knowledge of the assigned readings.

  大学生在写作过程中有所帮助。一定要阅读与你要写的内容相关的资料。如果你连课堂上布置的阅读任务都来不及完成,那么你如何能期望坐下来写一篇与主题相关的文章呢?除非你上的课是一门完全基于个人观点的哲学课,否则你那篇根本没有体现出完成指定阅读内容的文章绝对不会给你的教授留下好印象。

  Do not summarize reading assignments from your course. If you are writing about literature, do not give your professor a plot summary; if you are writing about some kind of theory, do not give the main points of a theoretical essay you read for the class. This should go without saying, but I’ll include it within this point, absolutely do not plagiarize. Most universities have honor codes and strict policies regarding plagiarism and you do not want to be caught disregarding these rules’ suspension or expulsion will usually follow.

  不要只是总结课程要求的阅读内容。如果你写的是文学方面的文章,别给你的教授交一份故事情节概述;如果你写关于某种理论的文章,别给教授交一份你为了这门课程专门阅读过的某一篇理论性文章的要点。有一点不言自明,但是我还是要在这里说一下:那就是,绝对不要剽窃。大多数大学都有荣誉规章制度,对剽窃有严格的政策,你一定不希望因为忽视这些规则而被抓个正着,随后等待你的可就是停课或是勒令退学的处分。

  Do be creative and show free-thinking in your writing. Come up with interesting ways to make your points and interpret the topic given. I’m not saying stretch the reaches of your professor’s imagination, but consult with and get approval from him or her about potential ideas to be discussed in your paper, and think of different ways to elaborate on these ideas.

  要做到富有创意并且在写作中体现出你自由的思维。想出一些有趣的方法来提出你的观点,阐述给定的题目。我不是说一定要超出你教授的想象,而是要向你的教授请教,得到他或她对你在作业中要讨论的观点的认可,然后想办法别出心裁地阐述你的观点。

  Do not write a five-paragraph paper as you may have been taught to do in junior high. College professors hate papers with merely an introduction, point-by-point paragraphs, and a summarizing conclusion. Every paper should have an introduction and conclusion, but these should not mirror each other. The conclusion can push points discussed in the paper further or introduce new ideas; it should not merely serve as a quick regurgitation of everything you already said.

  不要写成初中阶段老师教的那种“五段式”文章。大学教授很不喜欢那种只有导言、几段逐点论述然后给一个概括性总结的文章。每篇文章都应该有导言和结论,但是这些段落不应该千篇一律。结论可以进一步推进文章所讨论的要点或者提出新的观点;它不应该仅仅只是作为你已说过的内容的重复。

  Do provide your reader with a thesis with an obvious point you are going to address. This does not mean you need a sentence in your introduction that begins with “In this paper, I am going to talk about/prove/argue/explore/etc.”, but somewhere in your introduction, your professor should be able to figure out what your paper will discuss.

  要给你的读者提供一篇观点明确的论文。这并不是意味着导言要用“本文要探讨/证明/ 论证/ 探索……”诸如此类的句子开头,而是在导言的某个地方,让你的教授能弄明白你的文章将要讨论什么问题。

  Do not choose a topic so broad that you leave every point only moderately explored. Narrow down your topic to something that can be thoroughly discussed in the amount of pages your assignment calls for. Find something specifi c in the assignment or material that really interests you personally, and focus on that. It will keep you interested in your work and force you to eliminate extraneous material from your paper.

  不要选择太宽泛的主题,以至于哪一方面都只能浅尝辄止,无法深入讨论。将你的题目缩小到在作业要求的篇幅内能够进行充分讨论。在指定阅读的资料中找出一些你个人特别感兴趣的东西,然后重点讨论这部分内容。这会让你对所写的文章兴致盎然,把文章中无关紧要的内容删除。

  Finally, do fi nd out what environment works best for you to write in. If you write best in places with lots of people, noise, and activity, stick with those places. Likewise, if you can focus better in quiet libraries or the privacy of your own room, then you should write there. Just try to discover as soon as possible what works for you and stick with it!

  最后,要知道什么样的环境最适合你写作。如果你在人多、嘈杂和举办活动的地方能写得最好,那就坚持在这些地方写作。同样地,如果你在安静的图书馆或者你自己房间的私人空间中能更好地集中注意力那就在那儿写。要尽快发现最适合你的写作环境,然后坚持下去!

  1. writer’s block 写作障碍

  2. plagiarize vt. 剽窃

  3. honor codes 荣誉规章制度,美国的大学生都必须遵守被称为“荣誉规章制度”的学术诚信政策。这条规定需要学生写一份书面保证,保证对所有的书面作业既没有剽窃,也没有违反其他道德规范。违反“荣誉规章制度”的学生会受到最严厉的处罚,包括短暂性停课、停学以及永久性开除等。

  4. disregard vt. 不管,不顾

  5. suspension n. 暂令停课(停学)

  6. expulsion n. 开除

  7. regurgitation n. 回流,反刍,(此处指)重复 

  8. extraneous a. 外部的,无关的

(译文内容由《英语沙龙·时尚版》独家提供,未经允许,请勿转载)

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