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[双语] 中国的土地问题:承包合约

2010-03-29 16:39:13  来源:国际在线综合  编辑:陆熙尧   

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  What turned out to be crucial is the idea of separating ownership rights from use rights. I was able to draw on many case-examples. At that time, all land in Hong Kong was owned by the (British) Crown, and a private owner of Crown land merely held a long land lease. As a student at UCLA, I bought a small Fiat on borrowed money. I was the registered owner and the bank the legal owner, but my use of the automobile was essentially unaffected by this separation of rights. In Coase’s analysis of the delineation of rights, illustrated in terms of beautiful examples in his 1960 paper, I did not see private ownership rights being important in the allocation and use of resources. 10 The issue cropped up when I turned my attention to the so-called responsibility contract, which emerged in China in early 1983. I saw that in the (logical) limit, this would amount to a contract granting the private use of resources without private title. The development of the responsibility contract is central in this paper, so I will defer a more detailed discussion to a later section.

  同样重要的,是所有权与使用权的分离。我用上好些例子申述。当时的香港,土地是政府或皇家所有,一幅官地的私人业主只持有一纸长期的租用合约。当我在洛杉矶加大作学生时,借钱购买了一部细小的快意牌汽车。我是注册车主,银行是法定车主,但这两权的分离对我使用该车是没有影响的。高斯对权利界定的分析,在那一九六○的鸿文中用上的多个精彩的实例,我看不到所有权是否私有对资源的使用有何重要。这话题的出现,是因为当时我的注意力集中在一九八三开始盛行的承包责任合约。我看到在逻辑上推到尽,这合约是准许私人使用资产但没有私人所有权。承包合约是这篇文章的重心所在,我稍后才详论。

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