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[双语] 以合约的关系来看人际互动

2010-03-29 17:03:58  来源:国际在线综合  编辑:陆熙尧   

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  I have been led by my efforts to understand China to see social interaction in terms of contractual relationships. When I was in Guangzhou in 1979, I was struck by the meticulous detailing of rank in different occupations. A certain rank would entitle a comrade to share an automobile, or to an egg every other day, or to the right to buy fish without having to stand in line. These phenomena were thought provoking. My first explanation was that since people are born unequal, in a “property-less” state where everybody is equally “property-less”, human rights must be unequal in order to produce social equilibrium. It took me two years to see the deeper truth: The hierarchical rankings adopted in China are contractual restraints essential to reduce rent dissipation under competition, in a situation where the delineation of rights in terms of property is absent.

  为了理解中国,我以合约的关系来看社会里的人际互动。一九七九在广州,见到不同职业的等级排列的细微划分使我震撼。某级别的同志可以分享一部汽车,或每隔一天可得鸡蛋一只,或有权到市场买鱼但不需要排队。这些现象有启发力。我最初的解释,是天生下来人是不平等的,如果在一个「无产」的社会中每个人平等地「无产」,人权一定要不平等才能找到社会的均衡。再过两年,我看到深入一点的真理:中国的等级排列其实是合约的约束,在资产本身没有权利界定的情况下,需要有这种排列界定来减低在竞争下的租值消散。

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