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[双语] 怎样解释市场和交易的存在?

2010-03-31 09:28:26  来源:国际在线综合  编辑:陆熙尧   

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  I then recalled a two-page paper written by Anthony Bottomley, published in 1963. 19 The author argued that pastures in Tripolitania were highly suitable for lucrative almond growing, and yet because of common ownership the land was used for cattle herding. 20 I have always been doubtful that there have ever existed valuable resources subjected to unrestrained common exploitation, but assuming this to be true, dissipation of land rent is implied. What then, would be the transaction/institution costs incurred in the use of the land for common herding in Tripolitania? The answer is the land rents dissipated! In my 1974 article on price control, I argued the dissipation of rent is a transaction cost. 21 In the Tripolitania example the same conclusion is more difficult to draw, but on two counts the land rents dissipated would indeed be transaction/institution costs. First, rent dissipation does not exist in a one-man economy; second, cost is the highest-valued option forgone –– in this case the land rents of almond tree cultivation forgone. By definition, the transaction/institution costs of converting pastures to almond cultivation, must, in total, not be less than the rent dissipated, for otherwise the conversion would have occurred. The implication followed is that if we are able to identify specific changes in these costs, then institutional change could be predicted. This is precisely what I did in 1981, when predicting that China would go “capitalist”.

  我跟着想到一篇只两页纸的文章,A. Bottomley一九六三发表的。作者的论点,是的黎波里的草原极宜种植杏仁树,但因为草原公有,于是用作畜牧。有价值的资源毫无约束地让公众使用的现象曾否出现过,我历来怀疑,但假设真有其事,租值消散是效果。那么,的黎波里的草原公用畜牧,其交易或制度费用是些什么呢?答案是消散了的租值!在我一九七四发表的关于价格管制的文章里,我指出租值消散是一种交易费用。的黎波里的例子,同样的看法比较困难,但在两方面土地的租值消散真的是交易或制度费用。一方面,租值消散不会在一人世界发生;另一方面,成本(这里指费用)是最高的代价——的黎波里的畜牧代价是种植杏仁树的土地租值。定义说,把草原转作种植杏仁树的用途的总交易或制度费用,一定不会低于租值的消散,否则这用途的转变会出现了。跟着的含意是,如果我们能认定这些费用在哪方面有了转变,制度的转变可以推断。这正是一九八一年我推断中国会走向资本主义的道路的方法。

(文字内容由中信出版社独家提供,未经允许,请勿转载)

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