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  • 编辑:  赵峦   稿源: 国际在线    2005-02-23 09:33:48
    [双语新闻]研究发现儿童运动训练过量害处大
      Injuries Rise for Young Athletes
    摘要:
        美国从事儿童运动医学研究的医生们日前表示,他们发现一些少年运动员的身体受到严重损伤,而这种损伤完全是由于运动训练过量所致。
        Around the country, doctors in pediatric sports medicine say it is as if they have happened upon a new childhood disease, and the cause is the overaggressive culture of organized youth sports.

        美国从事儿童运动医学研究的医生们日前表示,他们发现一些少年运动员的身体受到严重损伤,而这种损伤完全是由于运动训练过量所致。

        据《纽约时报》2月22日报道,在对20多位运动医学领域的医生和研究人员进行的采访中,很多人认为少年运动员伤病爆发的主要原因是由于这些孩子在年纪很小的时候就开始专门进行一个运动项目的训练,并且这种训练是常年不间断的。孩子们的运动量已经超过了他们所能承受的范围。医生们指出,典型的运动训练过量导致的身体损伤包括疲劳骨折(也称应力骨折)、生长板紊乱、膝盖骨碎裂、脚跟腱磨损以及过度弯曲带来的脊椎骨重叠等。其中的许多损伤类型以前只在成年人身上出现过。

        波士顿儿童医院运动医学部主任、率先进行少年儿童运动损伤治疗研究的莱尔·米凯利医生说,25年前,他的病人里只有10%是由于训练过量而受伤,大多数孩子的症状是骨折和扭伤;而现在运动过量受伤的比例则高达70%。

        亚历克斯·格拉肖7岁起就成为一名游泳运动员,她每天要游8000码,一直游到她胳膊疼痛。于是她学会了在水里故意让一只肩膀脱臼以减轻疼痛。后来她的肩膀进行了手术和1年时间的理疗,在15岁那年,她不得不永远退出了游泳比赛。

        杰雷特·阿代尔今年16岁,是美国亚特兰大市的一名少年棒球高手。他曾经在一个夏天里打了64场棒球比赛。2004年,他的一只胳膊肘被施以重建手术,从健康的那只胳膊肘上取一根筋植入受伤的那只胳膊肘。这种手术通常只会给成年棒球主力队员实施。

        安娜·萨尼是纽约市的一名13岁的少年女足明星,她每天都要进行训练,直到她膝盖的十字韧带被拉伤。

        美国著名运动整形外科医生詹姆斯·安德鲁斯说,也许因为训练过量而受伤并最终退出运动场的少年运动员只是一小部分,但这并不表示其他的孩子没有受伤。医生们警告说,很多少年运动员不会对身体的疼痛进行抱怨,因为他们相信,这是取得成功的必要代价。

        杰雷特·阿代尔说:“我的胳膊疼了好几年,但我从没去看过医生。就像人们说的,痛并快乐着。如果你要在十四五岁的时候成为一个好的棒球投手,你就得投无数次。每个人都希望自己能投出最漂亮的球。”

        费城儿童医院的医生安吉拉·史密斯说,从事各种项目的运动员父母们为了让他们的孩子能取得大学的奖学金或是从事职业化的运动生涯,而把孩子们推上了过量训练的道路。她说:“孩子们的训练量已经超过了他们正在发育的身体能承受的范围。”

        医生们感叹时下职业运动员已经成了美国的一个文化产物。20年前,孩子们的体育运动是无组织的,只是在校园或公园里的普通而随意的游戏。米凯利医生说:“那时候孩子们一天里可以玩完棒球再玩篮球和足球,这对他们的身体是有益的,孩子们身体得到平衡发展。但现在,少年运动员们在大人的监督下只能翻来覆去地进行同一种技巧的训练。”

        为了减少因训练过量而受到的损伤,人们专门设计出了一种训练方法。文尼·沙利文是一个由专业机构认证的力量和心理素质教练。他每周指导300多名少年运动员进行损伤恢复的训练。比如让他们做一些矫正肌肉不均衡的动作,以及让他们做一些提高柔韧性、平衡感的训练。 (孙亚萍)

        Around the country, doctors in pediatric sports medicine say it is as if they have happened upon a new childhood disease, and the cause is the overaggressive culture of organized youth sports.

        A competitive swimmer since she was 7, Alex Glashow of Barrington, R.I., logged 8,000 yards a day in the pool, until her arms ached. She learned to dislocate one shoulder intentionally to ease the pain in the water, but after shoulder surgery and a year of physical therapy, Glashow quit competitive swimming forever when she was 15.

        Jeret Adair, a top young pitching prospect from Atlanta who started 64 games in one summer for his traveling baseball team, last year had Tommy John surgery, an elbow reconstruction once reserved for aging major leaguers.

        Ana Sani of Scarsdale, N.Y., a 13-year-old budding soccer star, practiced daily until she tore the anterior cruciate ligament in her knee.

        Typical injuries range from stress fractures, growth plate disorders, cracked kneecaps and frayed heel tendons to a back condition brought on by excessive flexing that causes one vertebra to slip forward over another vertebra. Most are injuries once seen only in adults.

        Dr. Lyle Micheli, a pioneer in the field of treating youth sports injuries and director of the sports medicine division of Boston Children's Hospital, said that 25 years ago, only 10 percent of the patients he treated came to him for injuries caused by overuse. Back then, most childhood injuries were fractures and sprains.

        Dr. Micheli said overuse injuries now represented 70 percent of the cases he sees. In interviews with more than two dozen sports-medicine doctors and researchers, one factor was repeatedly cited as the prime cause for the outbreak in overuse injuries among young athletes: specialization in one sport at an early age and the year-round, almost manic, training for it that often follows.

        "It's not enough that they play on a school team, two travel teams and go to four camps for their sport in the summer," said Dr. Eric Small, who has a family sports-medicine practice in Westchester County. "They have private instructors for that one sport that they see twice a week. Then their parents get them out to practice in the backyard at night."

        Doctors lament the loss of what has become a cultural artifact: the playground athlete. Two decades ago, sports for children were often unorganized, with pick-up games common in schoolyards and community parks.

        "Children might have played baseball, basketball and football all in the same day," Dr. Micheli said. "This was good for their bodies, which developed in balance. Now young athletes play sports supervised by adults who have them doing the same techniques, the same drills, over and over and over.

     

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