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  • 编辑:  朱晓玲   稿源: 国际在线    2005-03-16 08:59:47
    作文写作之比较法
      文章开头句型:I 对立法 II 现象法 III 观点法 IV 引用法 V 比较法 VI 故事法 VII 问题法

      V.比较法

      比较法句型主要用于通过对过去与现在两种不同倾向、态度和观点的比较,引出文章要讨论的主题。

      37 For years /Until recently ... had been /was seen /viewed /regarded as.... But that is changing now. people are taking a fresh look at it. With the growing /mounting demand for /interest in /concern over ... people....

      37.1 For years, offsprings, especially sons had been expected to remain at home permanently, bringing their spouses home to the big, extended family when they got married. But that's changing now. With growing demand for independence and the improved living standard, more and more young people seek to leave the parental family to establish their own households.

      多少年来,子女,尤其是儿子一直被希冀永远待在家里。当他们结婚后,应把配偶带回家来,组成大家庭。但现在这已起了变化。由于生活水平的提高和对独立生活的要求,越来越多的青年追求搬出父母家,建立自己的家庭。

      37.2 Until recently the general attitude toward daydreaming remained hostile. Daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time. Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties. But now sane people are taking a fresh look at daydreaming. They think it may contribute to intellectual growth and lead to the attainment of actual goals.

      不久前人们对白日做梦一般还是持批评的态度,认为它浪费时间,是逃避现实生活及其责任的一种不健康的倾向。但现在有人对此持一种新的看法。他们认为白日做梦有助于智力的发展,能引导人们实现要达到的目标。

      37.3 Until recently, discoveries in science and technology had been thought of as the result of dramatic accidents. But the view is changing now. Contrary to the notion of "instant" scientific discoveries, distinguished scientific accomplishment is a matter of opportunity and of continuous and concentrated effort over long years.

      以前,科学技术的发现一直是被看成带有戏剧性的偶然结果。现在这种观点正在改变。与这种“瞬息”的科学发明的看法相反,伟大的科学成就不仅仅是机会,而且是长年累月换而不舍、孜孜不倦的结果。

      38 People used to think /It was once thought that.... In the past /old days .... But things are quite different. few people now share this view.

      38.1 People used to be born at home and die at home. In the old days. Children were familiar with birth and death as part of life. But now things are quite different. Our youngsters have never been close by during the birth of a baby and have never experienced the death of a family member. When people get seriously sick, they are often transferred to a hospital, where children are usually unwelcome and forbidden to visit terminally ill patients. This deprives the children of an experience of death, an experience very important to one's life.

      人们过去生在家里,死在家里。过去,生与死作为生活一部分孩子们是经常看到的和听到的。但现在情况大不相同了。我们年轻人从来看不到婴儿的降临,也体验不到一个家人的死去。当人患了重病,他们常被送往医院,而孩子们通常在医院是不受欢迎 的,是不允许探视临终的病人的。这就剥夺了孩子对死亡的体会,而这个体会对人生来说是十分重要的。

      38.2 It was once thought that air pollution affected only the areas immediately around large cities with factories and heavy traffic. Today, we know that although these are the areas with the worst air pollution, the problem is literally worldwide. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the burning of coal and oil is creating a greenhouse effect, and raising the world's average temperature.

      过去人们认为大气污染只影响工厂密集、交通繁忙的大城市周围地区。现在我们懂得虽然这些地区空气污染最严重,但这一问题实际上却是全球性的。燃烧煤和油使大气里的二氧化碳成份增加,这就带来了温室效应,使世界平均气温上升。

      39 Several years /decades ago, people ... Now, ... /Today, ... Why do people ...? has such change taken place?

      39.1 Several years ago, people were often a little surprised when they heard that a college student was doing a part-time job. "Why? Maybe he is short of money," they thought. Nowadays, it is not an uncommon occurrence that college students are working as tutors, salesmen and tour guides. Many students put up advertisements on bulletin boards or lamp posts to search    for odd jobs. Why do many students show great interest in a part-time or a summer job?

      几年前,人们听到某某大学生在打工,常会觉得有点惊奇。他们想:“怎么啦?他可能缺钱用吧?”但如今大学生兼做家庭教师或推销员、导游是常有的事了。许多学生在招贴栏或路灯杆上贴广告,想寻找一份短工。为什么许多学生对课余打工或暑假打工这么感兴趣呢?

      39.2 Several decades ago, early childhood was spent playing games on the streets. To acquire academic skills at early ages was not encouraged. But now there is an increasing awareness of the importance of learning in the early years. Failure to teach children when they are young is seen as evidence of bad parenting. Hence education begins at increasingly earlier ages. Children are now presented both at home and in kindergarten with formal instruction in reading and math once reserved for primary school students. Why has such a big change taken place?

      二三十年前,孩子们是在街上玩游戏度过童年的。人们并不鼓励从小多学知识。但现在人们越来越认识到从小学习的重要性。如果不从小教孩子识字等,父母会被认为对孩子不负责。所以现在教育越来越早。无论在  家里还是幼儿园,现在小孩子都接受正规的教育,如识字,算数,而这些以前要到小学才学。为什么会发生这么大变化呢?

      39.3 General attitude toward the market-oriented economy has undergone a great change. Twenty or thirty years ago, very few people believed that the market-oriented economy could work in our society. Now, however, it is widely held that it is the only key to the development of our economy. It is in my opinion that the second of these attitudes is nearly unsophisticated as the first. Yesterday's skepticism was based on ignorance of the law of economic growth; today's assurance reflects a misunderstanding of the nature of economy itself.

      人们对市场经济的态度经历了很大的变化。二三十年前,很少有人认为市场经济在我们国家行得通。而今天许多人则认为市场经济是我们经济发展的唯一手段。而我认为,第二种态度同第一种差不多简单。昨天对市场经济的怀疑态度是由于人们对经济发展规律的一无所知;而今天的绝对肯定则反映了人们对经济本质的误解。

      40 After a good many years of efforts to /enthusiasm for ..., people begin to ....

      40.1 After years of second-class status, smaller rewards, and lesser coverage by sports writers, women athletes are making great strides ,...not just in gymnastics and swimming, but in weightlifting and football. Women can and do compete well in nearly every sport and draw as large crowds of plying customers as men.

      多少年来女运动员地位低下,报酬低,体育记者对她们报道也少。现在她们正在取得很大的进步,不仅在体操、游泳,而且在举重和足球方面也取得了长足的进步。妇女在几乎所有的体育项目上都能,而且也确实干得很好,她们和男运动员一样能吸引许多观众。

      40.2 After years of enthusiasm for more children, childbearing is losing its appeal for many young couples in big cities. In an increasing number, newly-weds put off having children or decide not to have one at all. The latest reports show that in 1994 married couples with wives under 35 had less than one child on average, while with wives over 55 had more than three children.

      经过多年的多生孩子热后,大城市里的许多年轻夫妇对生孩子正逐渐失去兴趣。越来越多的新婚夫妇推迟生育孩子或决定不要孩子。根据最新的报道,1994年35岁以下的已婚女性平均生育子女还不到一个,而55岁以上的妇女则超过3个。

      40.3 After a good many years of observing human nature in action, I have firmly concluded that two qualities make the difference between leaders and men of average performance. They are curiosity and discontent. These deep human urges work together, I believe, to motivate all human discovery and achievement.

      经过多年来对现实生活中的人性的观察,我得出一个肯定结论:人能成为一个杰出之材还是一个平庸之辈取决于两个特性:好奇和不满足。我认为人性中的这两个欲望,一起起作用驱使人去发现,去取得成就。

      41 It is a traditional way /custom /practice to.... But now the pendulum has swung to another direction. /in the opposite direction. /the other way.

      41.1 It is a traditional custom for Chinese old people to live with their children and their grandchildren. In this way the young people can express their gratefulness and show respect for the elderly. But in the recent decades, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction. According to a study in 1994, 52 percent of Chinese elderly were living alone in their own houses or in nursing homes in big cities, as against nearly zero in 1954. Why are increasing numbers of the old people living apart from their    children?

      中国的老人和他们的子女和子孙住在一起是一个传统的习惯。年轻人以此来表示对老人的尊敬,表达对父辈养育之恩的报答。但最近一二十年,钟摆转到相反的方向去了。根据1994年一项调查, 52%的老人独住自己家,或住进大城市的养老院,而在1954年则基本没有这种情况。为什么越来越多的老人和他们的于女分开住呢?

      41.2 Traditionally, young ad4iks are preoccupied with business careers, financial success, the accumulation of possessions and conformable living. But now the pendulum seems to be swinging the other way. According to the 1994 census, many counterculture ideas have entered mainstream culture. More people are defining success in terms of intangibles ...creativity,   autonomy, pleasure, participation, adventure, stimulation, and love. Many are questioning the kinds of work society offers and the payoffs it provides. And many are dissatisfied with the traditional social identities of wife and husband.

      传统上来说,青年人关心的是职业、成功、积累财富以及舒适的生活。但现在钟摆似乎转到另一方向去了。根据1994年的调查,许多反文化的观念已进入了主流文化。许多人衡量成功的标志不再是物质方面,而是创造、自主、快乐、参与、冒险、刺激和爱情。许多人对社会提供的工作和支付的报酬发生了疑问,并且不满足于丈夫和妻子的传统社会属性。

      42 In recent years, there is a steady / subtle / significant shift of general / growing / healthy tendency to upward / welcome / undesirable trend toward ... According to a poll /study /survey , there is X percent of..., compared with Y percent last year. Why...?

      42.1 In recent years there is a steady shift of scientists from the pure to applied field. According to a study, in Beijing alone 72 percent of scientists and researchers have switched to industries where there are more jobs available and frequently more highly-paid than jobs connected with pure research. Does the trend have something to do with nationwide concentration on immediate results of economy and little interest in long-range studies?

      最近几年,科学家正从纯理论的研究转到应用领域上来。根据一项调查显示:光北京地区就有72%的科研工作者转向了工业部门,那里不仅工作机会多,通常工资待遇也远比理论研究部门要高得多。这种倾向是否和全国只注重经济的直接产出,不太关心长期的理论研究有关呢?

      42.2 In recent years there is a tendency towards living alone ------ a dramatic step on the path away from the close-knit, extended families so common just a few decades ago. According to a census report, households consisting of just one person have increased to 14 percent in the past year, compared with 4 percent 20 years ago. Why are people living alone?

      近些年来独身现象悄然出现。这对几十年前相当普遍的关系紧密的大家庭来说,是一个非常大的变化。根据一份调查报告,去年单身者家庭上升14%,而在20年前只有4% 单身者家庭。为什么那些人要选择独身生活呢?

    来源:万千英语族




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