文章开头句型：I 对立法 II 现象法 III 观点法 IV 引用法 V 比较法 VI 故事法 VII 问题法
37 For years /Until recently ... had been /was seen /viewed /regarded as.... But that is changing now. people are taking a fresh look at it. With the growing /mounting demand for /interest in /concern over ... people....
37.1 For years, offsprings, especially sons had been expected to remain at home permanently, bringing their spouses home to the big, extended family when they got married. But that's changing now. With growing demand for independence and the improved living standard, more and more young people seek to leave the parental family to establish their own households.
37.2 Until recently the general attitude toward daydreaming remained hostile. Daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time. Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties. But now sane people are taking a fresh look at daydreaming. They think it may contribute to intellectual growth and lead to the attainment of actual goals.
37.3 Until recently, discoveries in science and technology had been thought of as the result of dramatic accidents. But the view is changing now. Contrary to the notion of "instant" scientific discoveries, distinguished scientific accomplishment is a matter of opportunity and of continuous and concentrated effort over long years.
38 People used to think /It was once thought that.... In the past /old days .... But things are quite different. few people now share this view.
38.1 People used to be born at home and die at home. In the old days. Children were familiar with birth and death as part of life. But now things are quite different. Our youngsters have never been close by during the birth of a baby and have never experienced the death of a family member. When people get seriously sick, they are often transferred to a hospital, where children are usually unwelcome and forbidden to visit terminally ill patients. This deprives the children of an experience of death, an experience very important to one's life.
38.2 It was once thought that air pollution affected only the areas immediately around large cities with factories and heavy traffic. Today, we know that although these are the areas with the worst air pollution, the problem is literally worldwide. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the burning of coal and oil is creating a greenhouse effect, and raising the world's average temperature.
39 Several years /decades ago, people ... Now, ... /Today, ... Why do people ...? has such change taken place?
39.1 Several years ago, people were often a little surprised when they heard that a college student was doing a part-time job. "Why? Maybe he is short of money," they thought. Nowadays, it is not an uncommon occurrence that college students are working as tutors, salesmen and tour guides. Many students put up advertisements on bulletin boards or lamp posts to search for odd jobs. Why do many students show great interest in a part-time or a summer job?
39.2 Several decades ago, early childhood was spent playing games on the streets. To acquire academic skills at early ages was not encouraged. But now there is an increasing awareness of the importance of learning in the early years. Failure to teach children when they are young is seen as evidence of bad parenting. Hence education begins at increasingly earlier ages. Children are now presented both at home and in kindergarten with formal instruction in reading and math once reserved for primary school students. Why has such a big change taken place?
39.3 General attitude toward the market-oriented economy has undergone a great change. Twenty or thirty years ago, very few people believed that the market-oriented economy could work in our society. Now, however, it is widely held that it is the only key to the development of our economy. It is in my opinion that the second of these attitudes is nearly unsophisticated as the first. Yesterday's skepticism was based on ignorance of the law of economic growth; today's assurance reflects a misunderstanding of the nature of economy itself.
40 After a good many years of efforts to /enthusiasm for ..., people begin to ....
40.1 After years of second-class status, smaller rewards, and lesser coverage by sports writers, women athletes are making great strides ,...not just in gymnastics and swimming, but in weightlifting and football. Women can and do compete well in nearly every sport and draw as large crowds of plying customers as men.
40.2 After years of enthusiasm for more children, childbearing is losing its appeal for many young couples in big cities. In an increasing number, newly-weds put off having children or decide not to have one at all. The latest reports show that in 1994 married couples with wives under 35 had less than one child on average, while with wives over 55 had more than three children.
40.3 After a good many years of observing human nature in action, I have firmly concluded that two qualities make the difference between leaders and men of average performance. They are curiosity and discontent. These deep human urges work together, I believe, to motivate all human discovery and achievement.
41 It is a traditional way /custom /practice to.... But now the pendulum has swung to another direction. /in the opposite direction. /the other way.
41.1 It is a traditional custom for Chinese old people to live with their children and their grandchildren. In this way the young people can express their gratefulness and show respect for the elderly. But in the recent decades, the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction. According to a study in 1994, 52 percent of Chinese elderly were living alone in their own houses or in nursing homes in big cities, as against nearly zero in 1954. Why are increasing numbers of the old people living apart from their children?
41.2 Traditionally, young ad4iks are preoccupied with business careers, financial success, the accumulation of possessions and conformable living. But now the pendulum seems to be swinging the other way. According to the 1994 census, many counterculture ideas have entered mainstream culture. More people are defining success in terms of intangibles ...creativity, autonomy, pleasure, participation, adventure, stimulation, and love. Many are questioning the kinds of work society offers and the payoffs it provides. And many are dissatisfied with the traditional social identities of wife and husband.
42 In recent years, there is a steady / subtle / significant shift of general / growing / healthy tendency to upward / welcome / undesirable trend toward ... According to a poll /study /survey , there is X percent of..., compared with Y percent last year. Why...?
42.1 In recent years there is a steady shift of scientists from the pure to applied field. According to a study, in Beijing alone 72 percent of scientists and researchers have switched to industries where there are more jobs available and frequently more highly-paid than jobs connected with pure research. Does the trend have something to do with nationwide concentration on immediate results of economy and little interest in long-range studies?
42.2 In recent years there is a tendency towards living alone ------ a dramatic step on the path away from the close-knit, extended families so common just a few decades ago. According to a census report, households consisting of just one person have increased to 14 percent in the past year, compared with 4 percent 20 years ago. Why are people living alone?